Closing Cost Assistance Programs
- Related FREEandCLEAR Resources
- Closing Cost Assistance Program Overview
- How Closing Cost Assistance Programs Work
- Closing Cost Assistance Grant Program Example
The example below shows how a closing cost assistance grant can improve a first-time home buyer's ability to purchase a property
The example also shows how much the first-time home borrower will have to repay if the property is sold, refinanced or vacated within a pre-determined number of years, typically five years or greaterGrant pays for closing costs, enabling the borrower to purchase the propertyAmount due if the borrower has to repay the grant including interest
Program Example No Program Closing Cost Assistance Grant Program Home Purchase Price $220,000 $220,000 Personal Funds Saved for Down Payment and Closing Costs $20,000 $20,000 First Mortgage $200,000 $200,000 Closing Costs $3,500 $3,500 Total Amount Required to Purchase Home $223,500 $223,500 Closing Cost Assistance Grant None $3,500 Can buyer afford to buy home? No Yes Grant re-payment due if buyer lives in home for more than pre-determined number of years Not applicable $0 Grant re-payment due if buyer sells, refinances or moves out of home at the end of year four (including interest at 5.0%) Not applicable $3,869
- Who Offers Closing Cost Assistance Programs
- Click STATE PROGRAMS and select your state to find HUD-approved housing agencies or commissions that offer closing cost assistance programs in your area
- Closing Cost Assistance Program Eligibility
Closing cost assistance programs are designed to help low-to-moderate income borrowers pay for mortgage closing costs when they buy a home. When it comes to buying a home, many borrowers overlook closing costs, which can run thousands of dollars. By helping borrowers pay these costs, closing cost assistance programs make home ownership more attainable. Additionally, these programs free up more money for home buyers to spend on their down payment, potentially enabling them to qualify for a larger mortgage and afford a better home.
Most closing cost assistance programs are structured as a grant to the home buyer. Typically, the grant recipient is not required to repay the grant as long as the home is not sold, refinanced or vacated within a pre-determined number of years, typically five years or greater. If the home buyer sells, refinances or moves out of the property during the pre-determined number of years the grant must be re-paid, typically on a prorated basis based on the number of years the buyer has lived in the home.
For example, if the closing cost assistance program requires the home buyer to live in the property for five years for the grant to be fully forgiven and the home buyer moves out after three years, the buyer is required to repay 40% of the grant (two years remaining out of five required years equals 40%). Some programs require grant recipients to pay back the grant in full, plus interest, if they vacate the home before the specified number of years. Closing cost assistance grants typically range from a minimum of several hundred dollars up to $10,000 or more depending on the program.
Most closing cost assistance programs are offered by HUD-approved state and local housing agencies or commissions. These organizations are typically not-for-profit organizations that coordinate with federal, state and local governments to offer a range of home buyer assistance programs including closing cost assistance programs, down payment assistance programs and home buyer counseling.
Housing agencies and commissions are not lenders and typically only offer home buyer assistance programs and not the actual mortgage required to buy a home. The organizations usually work with participating lenders to offer mortgages to home buyers in conjunction with the closing cost assistance program. The housing organization is also typically familiar with no or no down payment mortgage programs such as the FHA Mortgage (3.5% down payment required) and HomeReady Mortgage (3.0% down payment required) programs and can help borrowers apply for these programs with participating lenders. For example, a home buyer could obtain a $2,000 closing cost grant from a housing commission and a $200,000 FHA mortgage from an approved lender to buy a home with a low down payment.
Home buyers should make sure they are working with a HUD-approved housing agency or commission before applying for a closing cost assistance program or paying any fees. Some individuals and companies attempt to scam people by charging them to access closing cost assistance programs. You should not pay anyone or any company who promises you a closing cost grant in exchange for an up-front fee. To avoid being ripped off, we recommend that home buyers work directly with HUD-approved housing agencies and commissions listed on the HUD web site.
Because closing cost assistance programs are offered by state and local housing commissions and agencies, program eligibility and qualification guidelines can vary. Home buyers should contact their local housing commission or agency and review the the following key items to determine if they are eligible for a closing cost assistance grant.
Borrower Qualification Requirements
Borrowers must meet credit score, income and other qualification requirements to qualify for a closing cost assistance program and mortgage. Please note that although housing agencies and commissions can help borrowers coordinate the mortgage application process, borrowers must be approved for the mortgage directly by the lender based on the lender’s qualification guidelines. Many closing cost assistance programs and low or no down payment mortgage programs allow more flexible qualification requirements including lower credit scores and higher debt-to-income ratios. Program participants are also required to complete a HUD-approved home buyer counseling class before their mortgage closes. Home buyers should work with their housing organization and lender to understand eligibility and qualification requirements before the apply for a mortgage and closing cost assistance grant.
First-Time or Repeat Home Buyer
Some closing cost assistance programs require participants to be first-time home buyers while other programs are also available to repeat home buyers.
To be eligible for the program, home buyers must typically occupy the home as their primary residence and may not be permitted to own another property. The property is usually required to be a single-family residence such as a home or condominium and multi-unit properties are typically not eligible. Some programs also apply a maximum allowable property purchase price.
Income and Asset Limits
The borrower's gross income must be below the program maximum household income limit. Maximum household gross income is defined as a percentage of the area median income (AMI) with the income limit varying depending on the number of people in the borrower's household. The more people in a household, the higher the income limit. For most closing cost assistance programs, an eligible borrower can have a maximum household gross income of 80% - 100% of the area median income. Many programs also have an asset maximum, which limits the amount of assets (money in the bank) the home buyer can have at closing.
Many closing cost assistance programs require participants to obtain a 30 year fixed rate mortgage although some programs also permit 15 year fixed rate mortgages and adjustable rate mortgages (ARM).
Because closing cost assistance programs involve additional work by the housing commission or agency, some programs require participants to pay an extra fee to process the grant application. On the other hand, most programs also limit the amount of fees and points that the lender can charge the borrower. This reduces the risk that the lender exploits the program by charging higher mortgage closing costs and fees.